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Reader Response: Pat Mora and James Welch Reader Response: Keith Gilyard and Mourning Dove Inquiry: Rudolfo Anaya and James Baldwin Inquiry: Tomás Rivera and Esmeralda Santiago Cultural Studies: Ishmael Reed and Graciela Limón Cultural Studies: N. Scott Momaday and Russell Leong Critical Pedagogy: Octavia E. Butler and Abiodun Oyewole Critical Pedagogy: Abiodun Oyewole and Lawson Fusao Inada
Theory Overview Lesson Plans Authors and Literary Works Resources
Session 3 Inquiry: Rudolfo Anaya and Esmeralda Santiago - Resources

Inquiry Theory
Teaching Strategies
Authors and Literary Works
Additional Resources


REFLECTION - Interactive Forum

Explore two poems using four approaches.


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Authors and Literary Works

 Rudolfo Anaya: Works by the Author
 Rudolfo Anaya: Works about the Author
 James Baldwin: Works by the Author
 James Baldwin: Works about the Author

Rudolfo Anaya

Works by the Author
Works about the Author

Works by the Author

Anaya, Rudolfo. Alburquerque. New York: Warner Books, 1994.
A young boxer from the barrio, unaware that he is adopted, learns that he is the son of a now-deceased wealthy white woman and an unknown Mexican man. As he attempts to track down his father, he encounters racism, greed, and political corruption in Albuquerque's affluent white community.

----. Bless Me, Ultima. Berkeley, CA: Quinto Sol Publications, 1972

----. Heart of Aztlan. Berkeley, CA: Editorial Justa Publications, 1976.
Set in an Albuquerque barrio, this novel tells the story of a family's journey from rural to urban life. Anaya's magic realism underlies his portrayal of workers and young people struggling to survive in an unfamiliar, and sometimes unforgiving, environment.

----. Tortuga. Berkeley, CA: Editorial Justa Publications, 1979.
A coming-of-age novel set in a hospital for crippled children, Tortuga continues the themes of healing and spirituality Anaya explored in Bless Me, Ultima. As the disabled adolescent protagonist learns about himself, the world of the hospital, and the wider world outside, he begins to understand the lessons taught by suffering.

----. Jalamanta, A Message From the Desert. New York: Warner Books, 1996.
Jalamanta has spent 30 years wandering in the desert, exiled by a government that considered him dangerous. Now he has returned to his people to show those living in poverty and violence the way of salvation and hope.

Other Works:
The Silence of the Llano: Short Stories (1982)
The Legend of La Llorona (1984)
Adventures of Juan Chicaspatas (1985)
Rudolfo Anaya, Autobiography (1985)
Lord of the Dawn: The Legend of Quetzalcoatl (1987)
The Farolitos of Christmas (1987)
Incredible Elfego Baca: Good Man, Bad Man of the Old West (1994)
Zia Summer (1995)
The Anaya Reader (1995)
Rio Grande Fall (1996)
Maya's Children: The Story of la Llorona (1997)
Shaman Winter (1999)

Billy the Kid (1999)
The Season of La Llorona (1987)

A Chicano in China (1985)


Works about the Author

Baeza, Abelard. Keep Blessing Us, Ultima: A Teaching Guide for Bless Me, Ultima. Austin: Easkin Press, 1997.
This book includes analysis, strategies, and more to help teachers plan classroom lessons around Anaya's novel.

Dick, Bruce and Silvio Sirias (eds). Conversations With Rudolfo Anaya. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi, 1998).
This collection of interviews with Anaya concerns issues of race and writing.

Gish, Robert Franklin. "Curanderismo and Witchery in the Fiction of Rudolfo A. Anaya: The Novel as Magic." New Mexico Humanities Review, 2 (1979): 5-13.
This critical article contains historical and cultural information about witchcraft in the American Southwest.

Gonzalez-T, César A. (ed). Rudolfo A. Anaya: Focus On Criticism. La Jolla, CA: Lalo Press, 1990.
This collection includes critical essays by a number of U.S. and European scholars, and an extensive bibliography.

Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. Rudolfo A. Anaya: A Critical Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
This critical interpretation of Anaya's work focuses primarily on Mexican American issues.

Vassallo, Paul (ed). The Magic of Words. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982.
This commemorative collection of articles and essays focuses on Mexican Americans and New Mexico in the work of Anaya.


James Baldwin

Works by the Author
Works about the Author

Works by the Author

Baldwin, James. Another Country. New York: Dial Press, 1962.
Set in Greenwich Village, Harlem, and France, this emotionally intense novel explores the sexual, racial, political, and artistic tensions of its time.

----. Blues for Mister Charlie. New York: Dial Press, 1964.
Loosely based on the murder of civil rights activist Emmett Till in 1955, Blues for Mister Charlie is a morality play that pits "whitetown" against "blacktown."

----. The Fire Next Time. New York: Dial Press, 1963.

----. Giovanni's Room. New York: Dial Press, 1956.
The young American narrarator of this novel struggles with his homosexuality and ruminates on his troubled love affair with an Italian man who has been sentenced to die for murder.

----. Go Tell It On the Mountain. New York: Knopf, 1953.
"Mountain is the book I had to write if I was ever going to write anything else," James Baldwin once remarked. A partly autobiographical novel, it tells the tale of a sensitive teenage preacher who battles with his brutal stepfather.

----. If Beale Street Could Talk. New York: Dial Press, 1974.
This poetic love story concerns a young artist who is unjustly accused of a crime. A book full of anger, it is ultimately about the saving power of love and the importance of family bonds.

-----. Nobody Knows My Name: More Notes of a Native Son. New York: Dial Press, 1961.
This collection of essays explores race relations in America and also includes Baldwin's commentary on author Richard Wright's work.

----. Notes of a Native Son. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955.
Baldwin's first book of essays covers topics such as life in Harlem and the protest novel.

----. "The Rockpile" and "Sonny's Blues," from Going to Meet the Man. New York: Vintage, 1995.

Other Works:
Everybody's Protest Novel (1949)
The Amen Corner (1955)
Going to Meet the Man (1965)
Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone (1968)
Just Above My Head (1979)
The Price of the Ticket (1985)


Works about the Author

Achebe, Chinua. "James Baldwin." In James Baldwin: The Legacy, edited by Quincy Troupe. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989.
This critical appreciation explores Baldwin's work and its influence.

Albert, Richard N. "The Jazz-Blues Motif in James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues.'" College Literature, 11:2 (Spring 1984): 178-185.
This critical essay considers the music that most influenced Baldwin.

Byerman, Keith E. "Words and Music: Narrative Ambiguity in 'Sonny's Blues.'" Studies in Short Fiction, 19:4 (Fall 1982): 367-72.
This analytic essay considers the role of music in Baldwin's work.

Clark, Michael. "James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues': Childhood Light and Art." College Language Association Journal, 29:2 (December 1985): 197-205.
This critical analysis explores different aspects of Baldwin's short story.

Kollhofer, Jakob (ed). James Baldwin: His Place in American Literary History and His Reception in Europe. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1991.
This book looks at Baldwin's writing in relation to the communities where he lived and worked.

McClane, Kenneth A. "Sonny's Blues." In You've Got to Read This: Contemporary American Writers Introduce Stories That Held Them in Awe, edited by Ron Hansen and Jim Shepard. New York: HarperPerennial, 1994.
The writer discusses how Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues" saved his life.

Mosher, Marlene. "Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blue's.'" Explicator, 40:4 (Summer 1982): 59.
Mosher performs a close reading of Baldwin's fiction.

Murray, Donald C. "James Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues': Complicated and Simple." Studies in Short Fiction, 14 (1977): 353-57.
Murray analyzes Baldwin's famous short story.

Robertson, Patricia R. "Baldwin's 'Sonny's Blues': The Scapegoat Metaphor." University of Mississippi Studies in English 9 (1991): 189-98.
Robertson presents a thematic analysis of Baldwin's fiction.

Waldrep, Shelton. "'Being Bridges': Cleaver/Baldwin/Lorde and African-American Sexism and Sexuality." In Critical Essays: Gay and Lesbian Writers of Color, edited by Emmanuel S. Nelson: 167-180. New York: Haworth, 1993.
Waldrep explores the manner in which Baldwin's sexuality is expressed in his work.

James Baldwin - American Masters
This site offers a wealth of information about Baldwin. Partner to the PBS documentary.

African American World

This page contains concise information about Baldwin's life and work.

NPR Interview With James Baldwin
This links to a 1986 interview with James Baldwin.

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